Assessment of Silent Reading Efficiency

 

“The Decline of Comprehension-Based Silent Reading Efficiency in the United States: A Comparison of Current Data with Performance in 1960” appeared in Reading Research Quarterly in 2016. While there are endless debates about reading pedagogy, there is consensus that the best way to assess silent reading efficiency is by measuring eye movements. Continue reading

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Plasticity in Sensory Systems

2011 International Conference on Plastic Vision

Edited by Jennifer K. E. Steeves and Laurence R. Harris

The term “plasticity” in neuroscience means that the brain can change and discoveries over the last couple of decades have proven that we retain a degree of neuroplasticity into old age. This volume is a collection of papers from the presentations at the meeting. None of the scientists are optometrists but all of their research relates to vision development and vision therapy. Visual skills and the processing of visual information develop through experience and can be modified through directed, intensive rehearsal. This happens as people improve at a craft, hobby, music, art, job, or sport. Visual skills and visual processing can also be developed through vision therapy. The following excerpts are taken directly from the scientific papers. Continue reading

Function alters Structure = Plasticity

In The Road to Character, David Brooks encourages developing good behaviors in children because we become what we do. Everything that we do, experience, see, and think changes our brains, either making new connections or reinforcing established connections. The specific techniques of optometric vision therapy to enhance visual function have been shown to make corresponding changes in the brain.

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Scanning

Scanning is used to find an object, a person, or a word. This is usually simple for most adults, but not always (such as men looking into a refrigerator). As is true for many skills that have become automatic, it is easy to overlook the complexity involved and how difficult it is to learn.

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Scanning requires sequential eye movements and fixations. It requires visualizing the desired object and maintaining that image while looking at other objects. This is particularly challenging if the other objects are either distracting or similar to the object in question. When this is the case, the load on working memory increases and it becomes more difficult. If we are looking for our sneakers, that is one level of challenge. If we are looking for tomato soup amongst other soups or a phrase on a page, that is very different. It can be like singing one song while listening to another. If the eye movements are random, the fixations too brief, or if the visualized image fades, we will not succeed. Scanning requires sustained vigilance.

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The inability to scan efficiently wastes time and is frustrating. The quality of scanning reflects a person’s organization. They are both disciplined, sequential, and require working memory. Academically, scanning is important when we are copying so we can find our place when looking back-and-forth. It is important when finding information, such as answers to a question in a passage that has been read. If a child needs to start to read a passage over, it will be time-consuming and they will inevitably forget what is was that they were looking for. Scanning requires the integration of top-down processing (keeping the image in working memory and filtering everything else that is seen) and bottom-up processing (directing the eyes with a goal-oriented priority). Scanning is one of the skills developed in optometric vision therapy.

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Visualization

The Effect of Saccadic Training on Early Reading Fluency

Solutions for your child who struggles in school starts by knowing what to ask your eye doctor

Vision and Learning: A Guide for Parents and Professionals

Proust and the Squid:The Story and Science of the Reading Brain

Maryanne Wolf

I have blogged previously about Dyslexia, Fluency, and the Brain which was edited by Maryanne Wolf. She has been a leading researcher on the processes of reading in the brain for decades. I have chosen the following excerpts from this book for their appreciation for how reading develops which provides insights into how reading readiness and reading instruction can be improved…. Continue reading