Welcome to Your Child’s Brain

IMG_4199Sandra Aamodt & Sam Wang

While Welcome to Your Child’s Brain is part of the self-help genre, it is written by two neuroscientists who bring their own research and that of others to the key questions of child development. For those who are interested in which areas of the brain are involved in different behaviors, the current research on this is presented, but effectively raising children has similarities to effectively using a computer. You need to know how the programs work. You do not need to know the inner workings of the computer. In the case of children (and other humans) we don’t need to know the areas of the brain which are involved, most of which is still poorly understood. This book, like others which I have reviewed, is a response to some of the misleading information, toys, and educational programs which are being presented to parents and it is this information which has the potential to be most beneficial. To make this as concise as possible, I will present bullets in the form of excerpts and will include page numbers if you would like to read more on any of these statements or conclusions.

The “best gift” you can give your children is self-control. Self-control and other executive functions of the brain (like working memory, flexible thinking, and resisting the temptation to go on automatic) contribute to the development of [children’s] most important basic brain function: the ability to control their own behavior in order to reach a goal.” P. xii

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It probably doesn’t matter exactly what excites your children; as long as they are intensely engaged by an activity and concentrate on it, they will be improving their ability to self-regulate and thus their prospects for the future.” P. xii

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Babies start to follow an adult’s gaze as early as four months of age. P. 7

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Being effective in the world is enormously rewarding for children and adults alike. P. 25

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One reason that people get so worked up over the nature vs. nurture debate is the widespread assumption that genetic contributions to development are deterministic, while environmental contributions are flexible… Nearly all genes that influence behavior act by changing the odds of a particular developmental outcome, not by specifying it exactly – so your child’s heredity is not destiny… Indeed, from an individual neuron’s perspective, it would be hard to distinguish between “genetic” and “environmental” influences. Signals that enter your brain through your eyes or ears (that is, via experience) influence development by causing chemical signals to modify genes or proteins – just as genetic influences do. Some of these changes are reversible, and some are not, but whether they originated inside or outside the body is not the determining factor. Pp. 32 – 33

Epigenetics is a new field which is not easy to understand. Environmental influences can determine if and when genes are expressed and some of these can even be passed on to future generations. The following excerpts relate to epigenetics.

When epigenetic modifications occur in sperm or eggs, they can affect future generations. This process is best understood in laboratory animals. For example, female mice that spent a particular two weeks of their youth in an “enriched environment” (with many toys) learned more easily as adults. And so did their pups – even when those pups were raised by a foster mother and did not receive any enrichment themselves. The pups instead benefited from their mother’s experiences passed down through epigenetic modifications to her DNA. P. 34

Mice Security Mastomys Family Community Together

 

To start with a basic principle, your child’s genes can influence his environment – and vice versa. His personal characteristics lead him to seek out certain experiences in life and his tendencies to react to other people in certain ways affect how they behave toward him…. Because the influences run in both directions, many developmental processes are feedback loops, in which our genes influence our environment, which then influence our genes (or at least the way they are expressed), and so on…. With all of this interaction, it is nearly impossible to figure out how much of a particular behavior is caused by genes and how much by environment. P. 35

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Sleep debt has serious consequences, including reduced mental performance, depressed mood, impaired health, and weight gain. P. 78

 

Perception of large-scale motion patterns, like raindrops seen through the windshield of a moving car, improves rapidly between three and five months and then continues to develop slowly through middle childhood. This aspect of motion processing, the most vulnerable to disruption, is impaired in some developmental disorders, including dyslexia and autism. P. 83

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Young children’s play contributes to the development of their most important basic brain function: the ability to control their own behavior in order to reach a goal. P. 112

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Preschool children’s ability to resist temptation is a much better predictor of eventual academic success than their IQ scores. P. 112

Succeeding at challenging self-control tasks builds more success, but repeated failure may instead teach the child that there’s no point in trying. P. 120

 

Active children have higher self-esteem than inactive children. P. 131

 

All of us have experienced emotions that seemed overwhelming and out of control. Imagine feeling that way much of the time, and you have a picture of your child’s daily experience. One reason that life with toddlers is such a wild ride is that the parts of the nervous system that produce raw emotions mature earlier than the brain regions that interpret and manage them. P. 155

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Until their own regulatory capacity is fully developed, your children rely on you to moderate their emotions, by soothing and distracting them, and to help them learn how it’s done. Parents who are more sensitive to their infant’s needs and respond quickly to emotional cues tend to raise children who are better at regulating their own emotions. Pp. 161 – 162

 

If your child believes that intelligence is a fixed characteristic, that belief will make her act less smart. Children who think a test measures their innate competence do not try as hard or perform as well as those who think that the effort is the major determinant of success or failure. P. 188

 

Word-form recognition is learned through experience. This capacity seems to be an example of a more general ability of the inferior temporal cortex to visually recognize objects. P. 212

 

Stress profoundly affects the developing brain. P. 224

You may not think of nagging as a way of rewarding your child for misbehaving, but even yelling can actually encourage the behavior you’re trying to stop, especially if that’s the best way for your child to get your attention. Completely ignoring the problem behavior is usually the most effective way to get it to stop – if you can stick with it long enough.

It’s common for parents to turn to yelling or spanking as their first response to problem behaviors, but a large body of research shows that this negative approach to behavior modification is not very effective in the long run. The effects of punishment are fleeting and tend not to generalize to other situations. P. 248

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So many of the things we do instinctively and many of the things promoted in our culture are correct, but many are not. Concepts of child-rearing tend to change, but children remain mostly the same as the environment changes. Due to many pressures, some of what is being done in education at this time is not in the child’s best interest nor will it produce the desired changes in a significant percent of the population. We have many new distractions with which to cope and we can’t pretend that they don’t exist. I hope that this information is helpful.

What if Everybody Understood Child Development? Part 1

Let Them Eat Dirt

Growing Up with Sensory Issues:Insider Tips from a Woman with Autism

Reclaiming Childhood:Letting Children Be Children in Our Achievement Oriented Society

Book Review: Nuture Shock: New Thinking about Children

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the curious incident of the dog in the night-time

Cover art

the curious incident of the dog in the night-time is a novel narrated in the first person by a 15-year-old boy with autism. The author, Mark Haddon, has worked with autistic individuals and expresses the feelings and thoughts that some autistic individuals may be experiencing. When the reader becomes absorbed in the book, the concept of a spectrum disorder starts to make sense. Most of us can identify with degrees of what the narrator is experiencing. It is important to recognize our similarities along with our differences and to keep in mind that understanding each other is a challenge in both directions. It is hard to believe how little literature was available on autism only a dozen years ago and how much our understanding, while far from complete, has expanded. Continue reading

Growing Up with Sensory Issues:Insider Tips from a Woman with Autism

jack-onswingJennifer McIlwee Myers

There hasn’t been a book that I have reviewed for the blog which I have enjoyed reading as much as this book. The author, now in her 40s, tells her own story augmented by decades of research and experience and does it in an engaging and endearing way. Since we all process the information from our senses differently, we all have some sensory issues, but “SPD happens when a person’s brain does not make good enough sense of sensory input for that person to complete the tasks of daily life without serious impediment.” p. 27 The book reads like a good historical novel which gives you the feel of the situation while you are absorbing more history than you realize…. Continue reading

A Full Life with Autism

 

Chantal Sicile-Kira and Jeremy Sicile-Kira

 

This new book, which was written by a mother and son team, focuses on the challenges of people on the autism spectrum as they move into adulthood. I recommend it for families who are facing that challenge or who will soon have the challenges of that transition. What I found to be most interesting from our perspective is a very insightful explanation by Jeremy of the differences in his visual perception before and after optometric vision therapy. Continue reading

NeuroTribes:The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity

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At the recommendation of a colleague and friend, I purchased NeuroTribes and In a Different Key: The Story of Autism at the same time and then spent months looking at them on my shelf. Would I ever read two large, dry books on the same subject? Finally, trusting the recommendation, I started to read NeuroTribes and was pleased to find out how wrong my assumption was.

 

 

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Early Patterns of Eye Gaze and Brain Connectivity

 

Initiate Developmental Cascades in Visual Cognitive Function

Frontiers in Neuroscience, April 2016

During every examination, we test a patient’s ability to track a moving object. For most patients, even very young patients, this is easy and natural to the extent that it may seem silly. But for other patients, we see wide variations in behavior usually without them realizing that they are having difficulty keeping their eyes on the target. Continue reading